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Carl R. Woese Institute for Genomic Biology

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"One Health is the collaborative effort of multiple health science professions, together with their related disciplines and institutions – working locally, nationally, and globally – to attain optimal health for people, domestic animals, wildlife, plants, and our environment."

For more on the One Health Initiative:

To Celebrate One Health Day, the Carl R. Woese Institute for Genomic Biology and the College of Veterinary Medicine have partnered to bring a path of One Health facts linking the sites of One Health Research at the University. 

Got questions? Tweet us @IGBIllinois with #OneHealthDay.

University of Illinois One Health Research Path

You can follow the the One Health Path from Vet Med to Beckman, passing by the IGB and other prominent Univeristy of Illinois research buildings. Post your favorite picture with the pathway and tag the IGB.


University of Illinois One Health Day Fun Facts

1. The genes that makes Salmonella a toxic to humans are encoded on viruses that infect this bacterium. This is true for many bacterial pathogens.

2. Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic human pathogen that is common in many environments including soil and leaf surfaces.

3. A particular strain of Salmonella, Salmonella Enteriditis, has evolved within the last 50-100 years to colonize the reproductive tract in chickens.  Although the chicken remains healthy, eggs are now often contaminated on the inside with Salmonella.  Hence it is no longer safe to ingest raw eggs because of this newly evolved strain.

4. More people die of sepsis in the US than HIV, Prostate Cancer and Breast Cancer combined

5. Currently, 700,000 people a year globally die from antibiotic resistance infections.

6. Societal medical costs of antibiotic resistance are estimated at $20 billion dollars per year in the US alone.

7. It is estimated that by 2050 globally 10 million people per year will die from infections with antimicrobial resistant pathogens.  This is more than are predicted to die from cancer.

Sugden, Rebecca, Ruth Kelly, and Sally Davies. “Combatting Antimicrobial Resistance Globally.” Nature Microbiology 1, no. 10 (September 27, 2016): 16187. doi:10.1038/nmicrobiol.2016.187.

8. The wide-spread use of bee-killing pesticides are particular threats for honeybees and wild pollinators.

9. Nearly a third of commercial honeybees died last winter, a whopping increase of 42% from the previous year due to infection, pesticides and climate change.

10. A USGS study found human and veterinary drugs (including antibiotics), hormones, detergents, disinfectants, plasticizers, fire retardants, insecticides, and antioxidants in detectable levels in natural rivers and stream. 75 percent of the streams had more than one, 50 percent had 7 or more, and 34 percent had 10 or more of these chemicals.

11. There are more bacteria in your mouth than there are people in the world.
Kroes, Ian, Paul W. Lepp, and David A. Relman. "Bacterial diversity within the human subgingival crevice." Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 96.25 (1999): 14547-14552.

12. A typical bowel movement can contain up to 100 billion organisms
Franks, Alison H., et al. "Variations of bacterial populations in human feces measured by fluorescent in situ hybridization with group-specific 16S rRNA-targeted oligonucleotide probes." Applied and Environmental Microbiology64.9 (1998): 3336-3345.

13. An average sneeze will spread over 100,000 virus cells up to 30 feet
Gerone, Peter J., et al. "Assessment of experimental and natural viral aerosols." Bacteriological reviews 30.3 (1966): 576.

14. 18 million courses of antibiotics are prescribed for the common cold virus in the US annually with no effect.
Shapiro DJ, Hicks LA, Pavia AT, Hersh AL. Antibiotic prescribing for adults in ambulatory care in the USA, 2007-09. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2014;69(1):234-40.

15. 50 million unnecessary antibiotics are prescribed for viral respiratory infections in the US annually.
Shapiro DJ, Hicks LA, Pavia AT, Hersh AL. Antibiotic prescribing for adults in ambulatory care in the USA, 2007-09. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2014;69(1):234-40.
16. Wearing headphones for just an hour could increase the bacteria in your ear by 700 times.
Berger EH. EarLog #17-Ear infection and the use of hearing protection. Journal of Occupational Medicine. 1986;27(9):620–623.
17. 75% of emerging pathogens are zoonotic (transmitted between animals and humans)
Woolhouse, Mark EJ. "Population biology of emerging and re-emerging pathogens." Trends in microbiology 10.10 (2002): s3-s7.

18. 1 in 6 people in the US become sick each year from foodborne illness,000 people die each year from contaminated food

19. 1.4 billion people are affected by mosquito-borne diseases each year

20. Poor access to potable drinking water is a global killer not only for humans, but also domestic and wild animals
World Health Organization. Guidelines for drinking-water quality: recommendations. Vol. 1. World Health Organization, 2004.

21. Smoking owners can increase the risk of cancer in pets
Reif, John S., Christa Bruns, and Kimberty S. Lower. "Cancer of the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses and exposure to environmental tobacco smoke in pet dogs." American journal of epidemiology 147.5 (1998): 488-492.

22. Contamination by personal care products and pharmaceuticals has been detected in rivers, lakes, and streams.
Daughton, Christian G., and Thomas A. Ternes. "Pharmaceuticals and personal care products in the environment: agents of subtle change?."Environmental health perspectives 107.Suppl 6 (1999): 907.

23. The concept of One Health started with Hippocrates, in 400 BCE
Hippocrates' "On Airs, Waters, and Places"

24. Robert Koch, the founder of the germ theory of disease, started his experiments using anthrax from farm animals.…

25. The German pathologist Rudolf Virchow set the foundation for One Health in the 19th century "Between animal and human medicine there are no dividing lines—nor should there be. The object is different but the experience obtained constitutes the basis of all medicine."

26. Over 1.5 million people, mostly children, die of diarrheal diseases worldwide each year
Unicef. "Diarrhoea: why children are still dying and what can be done."http://www. unicef. org/media/files/Final_Diarrhoea_Report_October_2009_final. pdf (2010).

27. Approximately 800 million livestock and poultry keepers worldwide— primarily women and children—depend on their few animals for food, income and stability.
Thornton, P. K., Mario Herrero, and P. J. Ericksen. "Livestock and climate change." (2011).

28. Health is an outcome shaped by a wide range of social, economic, natural, man-made, and political environments that form a complex and ever-changing dynamic

29. Almost 98% of all US expenditures in the system are spent on addressing diseases and only about 2% on prevention.
Miller, George, et al. "Quantifying national spending on wellness and prevention." Adv Health Econ Health Serv Res 19 (2008): 1-24.

30. Animals help children with autism spectrum disorders interact better
Sams, Mona J., Elizabeth V. Fortney, and Stan Willenbring. "Occupational therapy incorporating animals for children with autism: A pilot investigation."American Journal of Occupational Therapy 60.3 (2006): 268-274.

31. Humans can smell Stage 3 and Stage 4 cancers on a patient’s breath; dogs can sniff out early stage cancer.
McCulloch, Michael, et al. "Diagnostic accuracy of canine scent detection in early-and late-stage lung and breast cancers." Integrative cancer therapies5.1 (2006): 30-39.

32. The CDC estimates that more than 6 out of every 10 infectious diseases in humans are spread from animals.

33. Estimates say >10,000 people die from zoonotic tuberculosis every year.
Müller, Borna, et al. "Zoonotic Mycobacterium bovis-induced tuberculosis in humans." Emerg Infect Dis 19.6 (2013): 899-908.

34. 40 people in the South East US have been infected by leprosy from armadillos
Truman, Richard W., et al. "Probable zoonotic leprosy in the southern United States." New England Journal of Medicine 364.17 (2011): 1626-1633

35. The human genome is 99% similar to great apes and 95% similar to pigs
Gagneux, Pascal, and Ajit Varki. "Genetic differences between humans and great apes." Molecular phylogenetics and evolution 18.1 (2001): 2-13.
Meurens, François, et al. "The pig: a model for human infectious diseases."Trends in microbiology 20.1 (2012): 50-57.

36. Ecosystems and the biodiversity they embody constitute ‘‘environmental capital’’ on which human well-being heavily depends
Pimentel, David, et al. "Economic and environmental benefits of biodiversity."BioScience 47.11 (1997): 747-757.

37. Elimination of zoonoses such as rabies, echinococcosis, and brucellosis is possible only by interventions that vigorously target animal reservoirs
Zinsstag, Jakob, et al. "Human benefits of animal interventions for zoonosis control." Emerging infectious diseases 13.4 (2007): 527.

38. In Africa and Asia, an estimated 24,000–70,000 persons die of rabies each year
Knobel, Darryn L., et al. "Re-evaluating the burden of rabies in Africa and Asia." Bulletin of the World health Organization 83.5 (2005): 360-368.

39. During the 1918 influenza epidemic, life expectancy in the US dropped by 12 years
Noymer, Andrew, and Michel Garenne. "The 1918 influenza epidemic's effects on sex differentials in mortality in the United States." Population and Development Review 26.3 (2000): 565-581.

40. Yersinia pestis – plague – is killing prairie dogs in Montana
Girard, Jessica M., et al. "Differential plague-transmission dynamics determine Yersinia pestis population genetic structure on local, regional, and global scales." Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 101.22 (2004): 8408-8413.

41. An estimated 16 million people are affected by Chagas disease, a chronic, frequently fatal infection transmitted by spread by dogs and chickens.
Rassi, Anis, and José Antonio Marin-Neto. "Chagas disease." The Lancet375.9723 (2010): 1388-1402.

42. Hantavirus is carried mostly by deer mice. You can catch it by breathing dust contaminated with mouse droppings.
Jonsson, Colleen B., Luiz Tadeu Moraes Figueiredo, and Olli Vapalahti. "A global perspective on hantavirus ecology, epidemiology, and disease."Clinical microbiology reviews 23.2 (2010): 412-441.

43. House cats are the primary hosts of Toxoplasma gondii that infects the brains of more than half the human population, including about 50 million Americans. Toxoplasma is thought increase the risk of neuroticism and may contribute to schizophrenia.
Lafferty, Kevin D. "Can the common brain parasite, Toxoplasma gondii, influence human culture?." Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B: Biological Sciences 273.1602 (2006): 2749-2755.

44. Our early ancestors thousands of years ago gave an ulcer-causing bacteria, Helicobacter pylori, to lions, cheetahs and tigers. It persists to this day in large cats.
Jakob, W., et al. "Demonstration of Helicobacter pylori-like organisms in the gastric mucosa of captive exotic carnivores." Journal of comparative pathology 116.1 (1997): 21-33.

45. Chimps at Gombe Stream National Park in Tanzania contracted polio from humans
Pusey, Anne E., Michael L. Wilson, and D. Anthony Collins. "Human impacts, disease risk, and population dynamics in the chimpanzees of Gombe National Park, Tanzania." American Journal of Primatology 70.8 (2008): 738-744.

46. Gorillas and chimpanzees in West Africa have been killed by outbreaks of anthrax, which might have originated from cattle herded by humans
Leendertz, Fabian H., et al. "Anthrax in Western and Central African great apes." American journal of primatology 68.9 (2006): 928-933.

47. The human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV) killed entire populations of chimps in part of West Africa between 1999 and 2006. It was probably spread by tourists.
Kaur, Taranjit, et al. "Descriptive epidemiology of fatal respiratory outbreaks and detection of a human‐related metapneumovirus in wild chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) at Mahale Mountains National Park, Western Tanzania."American journal of primatology 70.8 (2008): 755-765.

48. Humans caught pubic lice from gorillas about 3 million years ago.
Reed, David L., et al. "Pair of lice lost or parasites regained: the evolutionary history of anthropoid primate lice." Bmc Biology 5.1 (2007): 1.

49. Human outbreaks of Rift Valley fever in Mauritania were mistakenly identified as yellow fever. The correct diagnosis was made only after public health services contacted livestock services
Bird, Brian H., et al. "Rift Valley fever virus." Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 234.7 (2009): 883-893.

50. Thawing permafrost in Siberia started an anthrax outbreak this summer, killing a child and infecting >2,000 reindeer
Büntgen, Ulf. "Bridge over troubled water valuing Russia’s scientific landscape." Climate Research 70.1 (2016): 95-98.

51. In 2015, about 200,000 saiga antelope died in 10 days across Kazakstan from a common bacterial infection.  We still don’t know why.
Orynbayev, Mukhit B., et al. "Seroprevalence of infectious diseases in saiga antelope (Saiga tatarica tatarica) in Kazakhstan 2012–2014." Preventive veterinary medicine 127 (2016): 100-104.

52. People don’t transmit West Nile Virus to mosquitoes – birds do.
Troupin, Andrea, and Tonya M. Colpitts. "Overview of West Nile Virus Transmission and Epidemiology." West Nile Virus: Methods and Protocols(2016): 15-18.

53. In the 2002 Ebola outbreak, the virus killed about 5,000 gorillas
Cameron, Kenneth N., et al. "Spatial and Temporal Dynamics of a Mortality Event among Central African Great Apes." PloS one 11.5 (2016): e0154505.

54. In the Congo Basin, the average person eats more than half a pound of bushmeat per day
Fa, John E., Nathalie van Vliet, and Robert Nasi. "Bushmeat, food security, and conservation in African rainforests." Tropical Conservation: Perspectives on Local and Global Priorities (2016): 331.

55. Genetic sequence data suggests that HIV spilled over into humans as many as 10 times over the last century before this virus emerged globally
Rupp, Stephanie, et al. "Beyond the Cut Hunter: A Historical Epidemiology of HIV Beginnings in Central Africa." EcoHealth (2016): 1-11.
56. The Center for Nutrition, Learning and Memory is the first U.s. center to study the relationship between diet and brain function

57. UIUC is partnering with Mayo Clinic to help researchers analyze genetic data better

58. Carl Woese, at UIUC, changed the way scientist think about the process of evolution.

59. Vaccinating cattle, who don’t get sick, for E. coli can protect people, who do.
Ochieng, Brian J., and Jill E. Hobbs. "Incentives for cattle producers to adopt an E. Coli vaccine: An application of best–worst scaling." Food Policy 59 (2016): 78-87.

60. Zoonotic diseases emerging between 1997 and 2009 cost the world >$80 billion.
Webster, Joanne P., et al. "One health–an ecological and evolutionary framework for tackling Neglected Zoonotic Diseases." Evolutionary applications 9.2 (2016): 313-333.

61. Zoonotic diseases are responsible for at least 2.5 billion human illnesses and 2.7 million human deaths every year.
Grace, D., et al. "Mapping of poverty and likely zoonoses hotspots." (2012).

62. Yellow fever may be endangering the survival of several tropical monkey species.
Nunn, Charles L., and Thomas R. Gillespie. "Infectious disease and primate conservation." (2016).

63. The US West Nile Virus outbreak had a higher incidence in horses than in people.
Troupin, Andrea, and Tonya M. Colpitts. "Overview of West Nile Virus Transmission and Epidemiology." West Nile Virus: Methods and Protocols(2016): 15-18.

64. Incidence of Lyme disease is estimated to be 10 x’s higher than reported.
White, J., et al. "Lyme Disease Surveillance in New York State: an Assessment of Case Underreporting." Zoonoses and Public Health (2016).

65. More than half of households in the US own a dog, cat, or both.  Pet ownership significantly changes the composition of the human microbiome.
Shuttlewood, Cameron Z., Phillip J. Greenwell, and V. Tamara Montrose. "Pet Ownership, Attitude Toward Pets, and Support for Wildlife Management Strategies." Human Dimensions of Wildlife 21.2 (2016): 180-188.

66. The 1996 Nobel Prize for medicine was shared by a physician and a veterinarian for their discoveries of cell mediated immune defence.

67. The first rabies vaccine was developed by Louis Pasteur for both dogs and people.
Pearce, J. M. S. "Louis Pasteur and rabies: a brief note." Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery & Psychiatry 73.1 (2002): 82-82.

68. The CDC trains Animal-Human Interface officers specifically to investigate One Health outbreaks.

69. A village in Nigeria found that duck deaths were an early warning sign of lead contamination that poisoned hundreds of children.

70. An Italian physician AND veterinarian in the 1700’s was the first to suggest bed nets to prevent malaria.
Ferroni, Eliana, Tom Jefferson, and Gabriel Gachelin. "Angelo Celli and research on the prevention of malaria in Italy a century ago."Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine 105.1 (2012): 35-40.

71. Comparative medicine is the study of disease processes across species, including humans.
Proc R Soc Med. 1927 Nov; 21(1): 129–134.

72. Zoonotic diseases are infections that can be transmitted between humans and animals.

73. In Bangladesh, Nipah virus was infecting people because bats were peeing in their palm sap collection jars.
Islam, M. Saiful, et al. "Nipah Virus Transmission from Bats to Humans Associated with Drinking Traditional Liquor Made from Date Palm Sap, Bangladesh, 2011–2014." Emerging infectious diseases 22.4 (2016): 664.

74. No antibiotics have ever been found in consumer dairy products.…

75. Hormones have never been used in pork production and have been banned in chicken and turkey production since the 1950’s.…

76. In addition to providing sweetness to food, honey contains health-promoting antioxidants 
Frankel, S., G. Robinson, and M. R. Berenbaum, 1998.  Antioxidant capacity and correlated characteristics of 14 monofloral honeys.  J. Apicultural Res. 37: 27-31.

77. Humans can contract poxviruses from sheep or cattle when butchering meat or tanning hides.
Fields Virology, 2015 edition
78. There are certain types of human adenoviruses that can infect and cause disease in non-human primates.
Chiu, Charles Y. et al.”A novel adenovirus species associated with an acute respiratory outbreak in a baboon colony and evidence of coincident human infection” mBio 4.2 (2016)

79. 8% of human genome is comprised of retroviruses
Genome Biol. 2001; 2(6): reviews1017.1–reviews1017.5.Published online 2001 Jun 5.

80. An estimated 1010 to 1014 microbial cells are present in the intestine of healthy mammals, which is approximately 10 times more than the number of host cells.
Spor A, Koren O, Ley R. Unravelling the effects of the environment and host genotype on the gut microbiome. Nat Rev Microbiol. 2011;9(4):279–290

81. During normal breathing, the lower airways in an adult human are exposed to 105 microorganisms per day through aerosols
Beck JM, Young VB, Huffnagle GB. The microbiome of the lung. Transl Res. 2012;160(4):258–266.

82. Antibiotic resistance genes are natural and can be found everywhere. Human-induced selection that increases their frequency to dangerous levels.
Nesme et al. 2014

83. Soil bacteria recycle important elements like nitrogen and form intimate symbioses with plant roots, and even protecting plants from disease.…

84. Healthy humans, chimps and gorillas and their species-specific gut microbes exhibit a pattern of co-evolution
Ochman et al 2010 PLoS Biology

85. Your healthy gut microbiomes will often still be more similar to the gut microbiomes of the family you were raised with than the gut microbiome your spouse or partner.
Zoetendal et al. 2001 Microbial Ecology in Health and Disease

86. Escherichia coli was isolated from the human gut and has been grown in labs for more than 130 years. However, E. coli is actually rare in the human gut, making up less than 0.01% of the bacteria in a healthy individual.
Bailey et al. 2010 J of Medical Microbiol

87. The microbes in your healthy gut provide you energy by breaking down the carbohydrates and proteins you eat.

88. Your healthy microbes need some of the same vitamins you do. For example, some microbes if they don’t get vitamin B12 cannot colonize in the gut and cannot contribute to this energy production.
Degnan et al. 2014 Cell Host Microbe

89. Most gut microbes are anaerobes – meaning they can only grow in conditions with 0% oxygen

90. Gut microbes from people in Japan have found that their gut microbes have acquired genes that can degrade nori (the algae used to wrap your sushi roles). These genes it turns out came from bacteria that live on algae in the ocean.
Hehemann et al. 2010 Nature

91. Making hot sauce ends up concentrating these plant viruses which remain in the human gut after they are eaten.
Zhang et al. 2005 PLoS Biology

92. Nearly 60% of gut microbe species can be grown in the laboratory
Goodman et al. 2011 PNAS

93. Your gut microbes are constantly changing. They vary day-to-day based on fluctuations in diet, drugs, exercise etc.
Caporaso et al. 2011 Genome Biol

94. However, long term your gut communities are distinct from other microbial communities that colonize your body (mouth, skin, nose).
Caporaso et al. 2011 Genome Biol

95. Immediately after birth babies’ guts are rapidly colonized from their moms.  The kinds of bacteria are different for children born vaginally versus by C-section.
Biasucci et al. 2008 J of Nutrition

96. It may take 18 years for a child to be considered an adult, but it only takes 3-5 years for children to develop gut bacterial communities that are similar to adults.
Yatsunenko et al. 2012 Nature, Koenig et al. 2011 PNAS

97. Bacteria share genes from unrelated bacteria. In the gut these genes can affect their ability to metabolize dietary carbohydrates or produce toxins that lead to diarrhea and disease.
Smillie et al 2011 Nature

98. Having a healthy microbiome is important – these microbes create a barrier that can block the invasion of pathogenic bacteria. This is called ‘colonization resistance’.
van der Waaij et al. 1971 J of Hygiene

99. Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) has been shown to be an effective way to combat the intestinal pathogen Clostridium difficile, colitis and irritable bowel syndrome.

100. The human microbiome is essential for human development, immunity and nutrition.

101. Oral antibiotics you take are going to radically alter your gut microbiota and it can take weeks to a year for the microbiota to fully recover.